The Pedro IV column is located in Rossio Square, in the centre of Lisbon. The monument was erected in 1874 and the square became Pedro IV Square. But the square has regained its old name. Rossio Square has been one of Lisbon’s main squares since the Middle Ages. The modern name « Rossio » is a tribute to King Pedro IV of Portugal, who was also the first emperor of Brazil. The square is surrounded by fountains, flower beds and is very typical of Portugal.
The bronze statue of the king is mounted on a high Corinthian column. At the base of the column are four allegorical female figures: Justice, Wisdom, Strength and Constraint. These are the main qualities of King Pedro IV.
A legend tells that it was originally planned to install a statue of the Mexican Emperor Maximilian at the top of the column. But the emperor of Mexico in 1867 was killed. The emperor died when the statue was almost finished and was to be installed on the column of the square. However, historians and those who carried out the restoration work in 2001, refute this legend by paying attention to the elements of the statue. It shows many elements dedicated to the Portuguese king: the Portuguese coat of arms, the chain of arms of the Military Order of the Tower and the Sword, courage, loyalty, merit and the Order of the Knights of Portugal.